India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia.It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also shaped the region’s diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence.
In 2015, the Indian economy was the world’s seventh-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi-ethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.
|India: At a Glance|
|Area wise in the world||7th|
|Location||India extends between latitudes 8o4’N and 37o6’N. It is a country of the east with its landmass lying beteen longitudes 68o7’E and 97o25’E.|
|Stretch||3,214 Kilometers from north to south|
|2,933 Kilometers from east to west|
|Land Frontier||15,200 km|
|Neighbouring Countries||India shares its political borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. The northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. India is seperated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar|
|Physical Feature||The mainland consists of four well-defined regions: (i)The great mountain zone, (ii)The Indo-Gangetic plain, (iii)The desert region and (iv)The Southern Peninsula|
|Rivers||The main rivers of the Himalayan group are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.|
|Climate||There are four seasons which are recognised by the India Meteorological department. They are – Cold weather, hot weather, rainy season and the season of the retreating south-west monsoon.|
|Fauna||Approx. 89,451 species|
|Official Languages||Hindi, English|
|Population (2001 census)||1,203,710,000(March 2011)(17% of the world’s population)|
|Populationwise place in the world||2nd|
|Population density||324 person per square kilometer|
|Sex Ratio||933 females per 1000 males|
|Area||3.3 Million sq. km|
|Coastline||7516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.|
|High Point||Kanchenjunga 8,598 m.|
The National Flag is the horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the center of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe.
The Jana Gana Mana is the national Anthem of India, composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was officially adopted by the constituent Aseembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950.
|National Song||Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s composed song “Vande Mataram” was adopted as the National Song. It has an equal status with “Jana Gana Mana”. It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.|
Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is symbol of India’s wildlife wealth. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is a striped animal.
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty grace, pride.
Mango is the national fruit of India. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India.
Lotus botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India.
Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees.
|National Calender||The Saka calender is the national calender of India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calender.|
|National Days.||26th January (Republic Day)
15th August (Independence Day)
2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)
|Country Name||Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya|
|Government Type||Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government|
|Official Language||Hindi, English|
|Administrative Division||28 States and 9 Union Territories.|
|Independence||15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)|
|Constitution||The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.|
|Legal System||The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.|
|Executive Branch||The President of India is the Head of the State, while Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.|
|Legislative Branch||The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the people) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.|
|Judicial Branch||The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.|