Inventions Inventions and Discoveries

Inventions and Discoveries of India

  Here, in ‘Inventions and Discoveries’ page, only those Inventions and discoveries made by Ancient (both the ancient and medieval nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India) and modern India are listed. Only Science category has been divided into : Science – Inventions & Science – Discoveries separately.
  Discovery is known as the act of detecting something that already preexists and has been around over a long period of time. Invention is using objects, ideas or theories that are already preexisting in order to create a new object, ideas or theories that are not in existence yet.
  ZoominInida has tried to consolidate all Inventions and discoveries of Indians. Though we sincerely believe to have missed some important inventions and discoveries made by ancient Indians and, we sincerely apologies for it. Modern India is achieving new milestone each year. India is waking up from long sleep. World is again seeing India as a rising power. It is difficult for us to keep track of each and every achievement. This page will be updated from time to time. So please bear with us..


Cashmere wool

  • Cashmere wool, obtained from Cashmere goats, is finer than sheep’s wool. The fiber is also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in he handmade shawls of Kashmir, India. References to woolen shawls appear in texts surviving from between the 3rd century BCE and the 11th century CE.

Cotton cultivation

  • Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization by the 5th millennium BCE – 4th millennium BCE.

Indigo dye

  • Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major center for its production and processing. The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India. Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product.

Jute cultivation

  • Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times. The region of Bengal was the major center for Jute cultivation.

Sugar refinement

  • During Gupta Empire from approximately 320 to 550 CE, the process of producing crystallized sugar from sugarcane was discovered. Then this process was spread to china with travelling Buddhist monks.

Construction and Architecture

Flush toilets

  • Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

Iron pillar of Delhi

  • The world’s first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi erected at the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375-413). The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and materials scientists and has been called “a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths” because of its high resistance to corrosion.

Prefabricated home and movable structure

  • In 16th century Mughal India, during the reign of Akbar, the first prefabricated & movable structures were invented. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579.


  • Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization’s archaeological site at Mohenjodaro. The stepwells had social, cultural and religious activities significance.


  • The origin of the stupa can be traced to 3rd-century BCE India. It was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it evolved into the pagoda, a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.



  • The precursor of chess originated in India. Both the Persians and Arabs ascribe the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians. The words for “chess” in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively.


  • Most authorities agree that the game evolved into the modern form range from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self-defense in India during the period between 1500 and 400 BCE.


  • Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.

Snakes and ladders

  • The game Snakes and Ladders had its origin in India and was called Moksha Patam or Parama Padam or Mokshapat. It was used to teach Hinduism and Hindu values to children.

Suits game

  • The popular game of cards originated in ancient India and was known as Krida-patram. It was one of the favorite pastimes of Indians in ancient times.

Material Production


  • Buttons were first used in Mohenjo-daro for ornamental purpose rather than for fastening. They were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization by 2000 BCE.


  • Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton. It had originated in the subcontinent by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature, by the 12th-century writer Hemachandra. Within India, calico originated in Kozhikode, Kerala.


  • Europeans first came in contact with this fabric in the city of Mosul which is now in Iraq. But the fabric actually originated from Dhaka which was in India (but now in Bangladesh).

In the UK, Australia and New Zealand :
– Calico simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton.
– Muslin a very fine, light plain weave cotton fabric.
In the US :
– Calico, cotton fabric with a small, all-over floral print.
– Muslin simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton and/or a very fine, light plain weave cotton fabric (sometimes called muslin gauze).

Carding devices

  • The earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India (2nd century CE). These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki would loosen the texture of the fiber by the means of a vibrating string.

Charkha (Spinning wheel)

  • A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres. Invented in India, between 500 and 1000 C.E.


  • The origin of Chintz is from the printed all cotton fabric of calico in India. The origin of the word chintz itself is from the Hindi language word (chitr), which means an image.


  • A palampore is a type of hand-painted and mordant-dyed bed cover that was made in India for the export market during the eighteenth century and very early nineteenth century.

Prayer flags

  • The Buddhist sutras, written on cloth in India, were transmitted to other regions of the world. These sutras, written on banners, were the origin of prayer flags. Legend ascribes the origin of the prayer flag to the Gautama Buddha, whose prayers were written on battle flags used by the devas against their adversaries, the asuras. The legend may have given the Indian bhiksu (monk) a reason for carrying the ‘heavenly’ banner as a way of signyfying his commitment to ahimsa. This knowledge was carried into Tibet by 800 CE.

Single roller cotton gin

  • A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The Ajanta caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century.


AKS primality test

  • The AKS primality test (also known as Agrawal Kayal Saxena primality test and cyclotomic AKS test) is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena, computer scientists at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, on August 6, 2002, in a paper titled “PRIMES is in P”. The algorithm determines whether a number is prime or composite within polynomial time. The authors received the 2006 Godel Prize and the 2006 Fulkerson Prize for this work.

Algebraic abbreviations

  • The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century. He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.

Basu’s theorem

  • The Basu’s theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.

Binary numbers

  • Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BCE). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chanda?sastra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.

Brahmagupta Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem

  • Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598-668 CE).

Chakravala method

  • The chakravala method is a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations, including Pell’s equation. It is commonly attributed to Bhaskara II, (c. 1114-1185 CE) although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950 ~ 1000 CE). Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type could be generalized, and he then described this general method, which was later refined by Bhaskara II in his Bijaganita treatise. He called it the Chakravala method: chakra meaning “wheel” in Sanskrit, a reference to the cyclic nature of the algorithm.

Decimal mark

  • The practice of using a decimal mark is derived from the decimal system used in Indian mathematics in the Middle Ages. It was popularized by the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, when Latin translation of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.

Fibonacci numbers

  • This sequence was first described by Virahanka (c. 700 AD), Gopala (c. 1135), and Hemachandra (c. 1150), as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BCE).

Finite Difference Interpolation

  • The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta presented what is possibly the first instance of finite difference interpolation around 665 CE.

Formal systems

  • A formal system or logical calculus is any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics. Panini (~6th-4th century BCE) is credited with the creation of the first Formal System in the world.

Hindu number system

  • With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system. It was developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.

Kosambi-Karhunen-Loève theorem

  • Also known as the Karhunen-Loève theorem. The Kosambi-Karhunen-Loève theorem is a representation of a stochastic process as an infinite linear combination of orthogonal functions, analogous to a Fourier series representation of a function on a bounded interval. Stochastic processes given by infinite series of this form were first considered by Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi.

Law of signs in multiplication

  • The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BCE. But were the first to establish the “law of signs” with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299. Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century, and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood. Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated, and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe., for example (+)×(-)=(-),(-)×(-)=(+) etc.

Madhava series

  • The infinite series for p and for the trigonometric sine, cosine, and arctangent is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – 1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

Pascal’s triangle

  • In the Western world, it is named after French mathematician Blaise Pascal, although other mathematicians studied it centuries before him in India. Described in the 6th century CE by Varahamihira and in the 10th century by Halayudha, commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of an earlier work on prosody) to the “Meru-prastaara”, or the “Staircase of Mount Meru”, in relation to binomial coefficients.

Pell’s equation, integral solution

  • About a thousand years before Pell’s time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598-668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakriti (Pell’s equation): x^2-Ny^2=1, where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.

Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan’s sum

  • These all were discovered by great Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.

Rolle’s theorem

  • Indian mathematician Bhaskara II (1114-1185) is credited with knowledge of Rolle’s theorem. Although the theorem is named after Michel Rolle, Rolle’s 1691 proof covered only the case of polynomial functions.

Shrikhande graph

  • Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande in 1959 CE. It is a strongly regular graph with 16 vertices and 48 edges, with each vertex having degree 6. Every pair of nodes has exactly two other neighbors in common, whether the pair of nodes is connected or not.

Sign convention

  • Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities. By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.

Trigonometric functions

  • The functions sine and cosine can be traced to the jya and koti-jya functions used in Gupta period Indian astronomy (Aryabhatiya, Surya Siddhanta), via translation from Sanskrit to Arabic and then from Arabic to Latin.

Zero, symbol

  • Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero (could be found in Bakhshali manuscript). In 500 CE, mathematician and astronomer, Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero (0).


Angina pectoris

  • It is the sensation of chest pain, pressure, or squeezing, often due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle as a result of obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries. The condition was named “hritshoola” in ancient India and was described by Sushruta (6th century BCE).

Ayurvedic medicine

  • Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient systems of medicine practiced in South Asia. The origins of Ayurveda have been traced back to around 5,000 BCE, when they originated as an oral tradition. Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy or rasa shastra).

Cataract surgery

  • The earliest form of cataract surgery was first found in ancient India and then introduced to other countries by the Indian physician Sushruta (ca. 3rd century CE), who described it in his work ‘Sushruta Samhita’. In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.

Cure for Leprosy

  • Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500-1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.

Lithiasis treatment

  • The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.

Low-cost sanitary pad machine

  • Arunachalam Muruganantham is the inventor of a low-cost sanitary pad making machine and has innovated grass-roots mechanisms for generating awareness about traditional unhygienic practices around menstruation in rural India. His mini-machines, which can manufacture sanitary pads for less than a third of the cost of commercial pads, have been installed in 23 of the 29 states of India.

Nasal reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap

  • Nasal reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap is a surgical technique to reconstruct different kinds of nasal defects. In this operation a reconstructive surgeon uses skin from the forehead above the eyebrow and pivots it vertically to replace missing nasal tissue. The first to use this kind of rhinoplasty was the Indian physician Sushruta during 600 to 700 BCE.

Plastic surgery

  • Sushruta, one of the earliest surgeons of the recorded history (600 B.C.) is believed to be the first individual to describe plastic surgery. Sushruta described the basic principles of plastic surgery in his famous ancient treatise ‘Sushruta Samhita’ (Sushruta’s compendium).’Sushruta Samhita’ is considered as one of the most brilliant gems in Indian medical literature. Sushruta is known as the father of surgery. Sushruta along with his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones. He even conducted brain surgeries and plastic surgery. He and his team conducted more than 3,000 surgeries with help of more than 120 surgical tools.

Treatment of Visceral leishmaniasis

  • The Indian medical practitioner Upendranath Brahmachari was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar or black fever) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.’ Brahmachari’s cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine. Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.

Siddha medicine

  • Siddha Medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam in South India. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha therapeutic system.

Metals manufacturing

Crucible steel

  • Perhaps as early as 300 BCE although certainly by 200 BCE high quality steel was being produced in southern India, by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique. In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon.

Seamless celestial globe

  • It was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in between 1589 and 1590 CE. It was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology.

Wootz steel

  • Wootz steel is an ultra-high carbon steel and the first form of crucible steel manufactured by the applications and use of nanomaterials in its microstructure and is characterised by its ultra-high carbon content exhibiting properties such as superplasticity and high impact hardness. Archaeological and Tamil language literary evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the common era, with wootz steel exported from the Chera dynasty and called Seric Iron in Rome, and later known as Damascus steel in Europe.



  • The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was invented in the early 20th century by the Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Incense clock

  • The incense clock is a timekeeping device used to measure minutes, hours, or days, incense clocks were commonly used at homes and temples in dynastic times. Although popularly associated with China the incense clock is believed to have originated in India.


  • Rulers were first used by the Indus Valley Civilization prior to 1500 BCE. Made of ivory, the rulers found during excavation, reveal the amazing accuracy of decimal subdivisions on it.

Weighing scale

  • The earliest evidence for the existence of weighing scale dates to 2400 BCE-1800 BCE in the Indus valley civilization prior to which no banking was performed due to lack of scales.


Diamond mining

  • Diamonds are thought to have been first recognized and mined in India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could be found along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. It is unclear when diamonds were first mined in India, although estimated to be at least 5,000 years ago. India remained the world’s only source of diamonds until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 18th century.

Zinc mining and medicinal zinc

  • Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India. Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during early Christian era. There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE). The Rasaratna Samuccaya which dates back to the Tantric period (c. 5th – 13th century CE) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose.

Programming languages

J Sharp:Visual J#

  • J Sharp:Visual J# (pronounced “jay-sharp”) programming language was a transitional language for programmers of Java and Visual J++ languages, so they could use their existing knowledge and applications on .NET Framework.It was developed by the Hyderabad-based Microsoft India Development Center at HITEC City in India.


  • Kojo is a programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) for computer programming and learning.Kojo is open-source software. It was created, and is actively developed, by Lalit Pant, a computer programmer and teacher living in Dehradun, India.

Science – Inventions

Carbon pigment

  • Since 4th century BCE, the practice of writing with ink with a sharp pointed needle was common in South India. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Xinjiang.Several ancient Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink.

Pseudomonas putida

  • Indian inventor and microbiologist Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty created a species of man made micro organism to break down crude oil.He genetically engineered a new species of Pseudomonas bacteria (“the oil-eating bacteria”) in 1971.

Iron and mercury coherer

  • In 1899, physicist Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose announced the development of an “iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector” in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London. He also later received U.S. Patent 755,840, “Detector for electrical disturbances” (1904), for a specific electromagnetic receiver.

Microwave Communication

  • The first public demonstration of microwave transmission was made by Jagadish Chandra Bose, in Calcutta, in 1895, two years before a similar demonstration by Marconi in England. Bose’s revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications.

Murty shearing interferometer

  • Invented by Mantravadi Venkata Radha Krishna Murty (M. V. R. K. Murty for short), a type of Lateral Shearing Interferometer utilizes a laser source for measuring refractive index.

Mysorean rockets

  • The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed by Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. After Tipu’s eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, and were soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.


  • The word Shampoo is derived from champo. A variety of herbs and their extracts were used as shampoos since ancient times in India. A variety of herbs and their extracts were used as shampoos since ancient times in India.

Toe stirrup

  • The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in ancient times. However the form, the conception of the primitive Indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today.

Science – Discoveries

Ammonium nitrite, synthesis in pure form

  • Prior to Roy’s synthesis of Ammonium nitrite it was thought that the compound undergoes rapid thermal decomposition releasing nitrogen and water in the process. Prafulla Chandra Roy synthesized NH4NO2 in its pure form, and became the first scientist to have done so.

Ashtekar variables

  • In theoretical physics, Ashtekar (new) variables, named after Abhay Ashtekar who invented them, represent an unusual way to rewrite the metric on the three-dimensional spatial slices in terms of a SU(2) gauge field and its complementary variable. Ashtekar variables are the key building block of loop quantum gravity.

Bhabha scattering

  • In 1935, Indian nuclear physicist Homi J. Bhabha published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electron-positron scattering. Electron-positron scattering was later named Bhabha scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field.

Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance

  • Invented jointly by Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar and K.N. Mathur in 1928, the so-called ‘Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance’ was a modern instrument used for measuring various magnetic properties.

Bose-Einstein statistics, condensate

  • On 4 June 1924 professor of Physics Satyendra Nath Bose mailed a short manuscript to Albert Einstein entitled ‘Planck’s Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis’ seeking Einstein’s influence to get it published after it was rejected by the prestigious journal ‘Philosophical Magazine’. The paper introduced what is today called Bose statistics, which showed how it could be used to derive the Planck blackbody spectrum from the assumption that light was made of photons. Einstein, recognizing the importance of the paper translated it into German himself and submitted it on Bose’s behalf to the prestigious ‘Zeitschrift für Physik’. Einstein later applied Bose’s principles on particles with mass and quickly predicted the Bose-Einstein condensate.


  • In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose-Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.

Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini Entropy or BGS Entropy

  • This modelling of entropy using network theory is used in the analysis of quantum gravity and is named after Sibasish Ghosh and his team-mates, Samuel L. Braunstein and Simone Severini.

Chandrasekhar limit and Chandrasekhar number

  • Discovered by and named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his work on stellar structure and stellar evolution.

Concept of the atom

  • Indian concept of the atom was developed independently and prior to the development of the idea in the Greco-Roman world. The first Indian philosopher who formulated ideas about the atom in a systematic manner was Kanada who lived in the 6th century B.C. Another Indian philosopher, Pakudha Katyayana who also lived in the 6th century B.C. and was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, had also propounded ideas about the atomic constitution of the material world.

Galena, applied use in electronics

  • Galena (lead glance) is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver. Scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose effectively used Galena crystals for constructing radio receivers. The Galena receivers of Bose were used to receive signals consisting of shortwave, white light and ultraviolet light. In 1904 Bose patented the use of Galena Detector which he called Point Contact Diode using Galena.


  • Aryabhata first identified the force to explain why objects do not fall when the earth rotates, Aryabhata developed a geocentric solar system of gravitation, and an eccentric elliptical model of the planets, where the planets spin on their axes and follow elliptical orbits,the Sun and the moon revolving around the earth in epicycles.

Mahalanobis distance

  • Introduced in 1936 by the Indian statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, this distance measure, based upon the correlation between variables, is used to identify and analyze differing pattern with respect to one base.

Mercurous Nitrite

  • The compound mercurous nitrite was discovered in 1896 by Chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy, who published his findings in the Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal. The discovery contributed as a base for significant future research in the field of chemistry.

Ramachandran plot, Ramachandran map, and Ramachandran angles

  • The Ramachandran plot and Ramachandran map were developed by Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, who published his results in the ‘Journal of Molecular Biology’ in 1963. He also developed the Ramachandran angles, which serve as a convenient tool for communication, representation, and various kinds of data analysis.

Raman scattering or the Raman effect

  • It is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels. The phenomenon is named for Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who discovered it in 1928.

Raychaudhuri equation

  • Discovered by physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in 1954. This was a key ingredient of the ‘Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems’ of general relativity.


Earth’s orbit (Sidereal year)

  • The Hindu cosmological time cycles explained in the Surya Siddhanta (700 BCE-600 CE), give the average length of the sidereal year (the length of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun) as 365.2563627 days, which is only a negligible 1.4 seconds longer than the modern value of 365.256363004 days. This remains the most accurate estimate for the length of the sidereal year anywhere in the world for over a thousand years.

Lunar water

  • Although the presence of water ice on the moon has been conjectured by various scientists since the 1960s,inconclusive evidence of free water ice had also been identified the first incontrovertible evidence of water on the moon was provided by the payload Chace carried by the Moon Impact Probe released by Chandrayaan-1 confirmed and established by NASA.

Quasinormal mode’s of black holes

  • C. V. Vishveshwara discovered the quasinormal modes of black holes. These modes of black hole vibrations are one of the main targets of observation using the gravitational wave detectors.

Saha ionization equation

  • The Saha ionization equation (or Saha-Langmuir equation), is an expression that relates the ionization state of an element to the temperature and pressure. The equation is a result of combining ideas of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics and is used to explain the spectral classification of stars. The expression was developed by the Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha in 1920.


Highly intellectual theory & thesis

  • Highly intellectual theory & thesis was contributed by ‘Adi Shankara’ in the 8th century CE. His primary role was consolidating the doctrine of ‘Advaita vedanta’. The philosophy of Advaita Vedanta is based on the sacred texts of the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita and Brahma Sutras. Adi Shankara gave a systematization and philosophical underpinning of this inquiry in his commentaries, which have become central texts in the Advaita Vedanta tradition. At least in the west, advainta vedanta was primarily known as a philosophical system. His doctrine on metaphysics, non-dualism, reasoning, soul is greatly regarded among the philosophical world & Sanatana Dharma.

Indian clubs

  • Since the time immemorial Indian are using clubs for developing strength. Almost every god and goddess of Hindu belief is depicted holding a war club. Through the ages, the war club changed in both name and form. Eventually, its use evolved in India as a means of physical exercise.

Martial Arts

  • Many Asian martial arts trace their origins to the fifth century and the supposed arrival of an Indian Buddhist monk, Bodhidarma, at the Shoalin temple in southern China. Finding the Chinese monks in poor physical condition, Bodhidarma developed a series of exercises for them which ultimately developed into a system of unarmed combat. It was in Japan that many of the techniques of karate were fine-tuned and therefore the martial art is linked to Japan.


  • Some of the earliest references to meditation are found in the Hindu Vedas of Nepal and India. Meditation is a part of yoga.


  • Yoga as a physical, mental, spiritual practice originated in ancient India. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1900 BCE).

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